FB   
 
Powered bysps
        Society for Policy Studies
 
 

 
Open Forum

Indian think tanks need more policy support By Nihit Goyal & Shweta Srinivasan Strong policy research is the cornerstone of policy formulation and a necessary condition for sustained good governance. However, it is widely acknowledged that the quality of policy research in India has been found wanting, both within and outside the government. Indicatively, not a single Indian think tank featured in the top 50 in 2012 Global Go To Think Tanks Rankings, and only six of them made it to the top 150.

 

The general elections of 2013 have laid bare the weaknesses of the electronic media especially pertaining to its commentator aspect. The results of the elections have shown that the number of seats being assigned to each political party (just a couple of days before the elections) by analysts (who used to appear on various TV talk shows or the TV election houses) was a grave miscalculation. Nevertheless, this problematic aspect is not without a history.

 
News Image

LAHORE: Former PM Nawaz Sharif late Saturday declared victory for his centre-right opposition Pakistan Muslim League-N (PML-N) party and invited other parties to work with him. "We should thank Allah that he has given PML-N another chance to serve you and Pakistan," he said in a speech to jubilant supporters at his party headquarters in Lahore.

   
 

Imran Khan, the popular cricketer - known for his sharp swing bowling - turned politician of Pakistan had  an accidental fall while campaigning in Lahore and sustained a serious head-injury- an incident which was captured live on television and rapidly disseminated through social media to thousands of Pakistani citizens who are preparing for a historic election on Saturday writes C Uday Bhaskar

by C Uday  Bhaskar

Imran Khan, the popular cricketer - known for his sharp swing bowling - turned politician of Pakistan had  an accidental fall while campaigning in Lahore and sustained a serious head-injury -  an incident which was captured live on television and rapidly disseminated through social media to thousands of Pakistani citizens who are preparing for a historic election on Saturday.

The effect of this accident has been dramatic and has united Pakistan in a rare show of unity and solidarity. While Imran Khan is no doubt seriously  injured , his condition is reported to be stable and both his supporters and detractors closed ranks in the immediate aftermath  of the accident.

His arch political rivals - President Zardari and former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharief -  expressed their sympathy in public and the latter even called off his campaigning for a day, so as not to be seen to be taking advantage of the accident.

The assessment about the May 11 election may be reviewed  at two levels - one as  before the Imran Khan accident and the other after this unfortunate incident. Prior to the accident, the consensus in Pakistan as reflected in the media and the equivalent of opinion  polls  was that the PML-N led by Nawaz Sharief would be the single largest part in the 342 member lower house - but perhaps short of an absolute majority to form a government, thereby leading to a coalition.

It was also opined that the Zardari-led PPP is now afflicted with anti-incumbency  and that the average Pakistani citizen would  look for a change through the ballot. And Imran Khan’s new party - the  PTI  ( Pakistan Tehrik-e-Insaf  ) was seen as being relatively new and untested. Though the popular cricketer had warned his rivals that a ‘tsunami’ in support of the  PTI  would  overwhelm them, astute political watchers in Pakistan saw this as wishful thinking.

The possibility that Imran Khan could be a significant player as a prospective coalition partner was mooted - but it seemed that the numbers would not be in his favor.

However post the May 7 accident,  the sympathy wave for Imran Khan has been unexpected. In the last three days, there has been an unprecedented  outpouring of support for the TIP leader in the urban electorate that is cyber-savvy and both the PPP and the PML-N are concerned.

The 342 Pakistan National Assembly has 272 directly elected members and 70 seats reserved for women and religious minorities. The provincial distribution has Punjab in the lead with 148 seats, while Sind has 61 and  Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa 35 ;  Balochistan and FATA  (Federally Administered Tribal Areas ) have  14 and 12 seats respectively and the national capital has 2 members.

These are the crucial 272 seats and the Punjab province holds the key to electoral victory and the forming of the new government in Islamabad.

The sympathy vote for Imran Khan after the May 7 accident could have the greatest impact in Punjab and  the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. A national icon, Imran Khan has links with both these regions and his empathy with the right-wing Islamist groups - and to an extent with the  Pakistan Taliban has created a pro-TIP constituency. But these are the traditional vote banks for the PML-N and the Sharief brothers who see Punjab as their province may be the most affected in a four-way contest which will split the vote between the  Nawaz Sharief led PML-N, the Zardari led PPP ,  the  Imran Khan led  PTI  - and the Islam-oriented MMA grouping. 

In the first-past-the-post yardstick, the margins for each seat will be accordingly reduced and as often evidenced  in India, multi-party  contests in the parliamentary form of democracy can lead to unexpected results.

The magic number is 172 seats in the Pakistan National Assembly and on current evidence, it appears unlikely that any single-party will get to that number or cross it. The possibility of a PML-N led coalition is the more likely outcome and in this scenario, the role of the  PTI  could become significant.

In the 2008 election, the  tally  of elected seats among the major parties was as follows: PPP - 94 ; PML-N  71 ; PML-Q 42  ; MQM - 19 ; ANP - 10; and the MMA - 5.

This time in 2013, the PML-Q  which had benefited under the Musharraf rule is unlikely to get much support and the  PTI  may well become the swing  factor for the new coalition - which in my view will be led by Nawaz Sharief.

The current sympathy for Imaran Khan notwithstanding, the run-up to the May 11 election in Pakistan has been splattered with bloodshed and the deliberate killing of moderate and liberal political leaders by the Pakistan Taliban and its support-base. Regrettably neither the PML-N or the TIP have taken an unequivocal position on this right-wing constituency and there appears to be an intent to placate the extremist elements by playing the anti-US card and pandering to their inflexible  Islamist ideology.

The Pakistan Taliban has issued repeated  warnings that their bullets will silence the ballot-box if any party or leader is seen to be too 'secular'  and straying from the ‘true’ path of Islam.

To his credit, in the last fortnight Imran Khan has been more nuanced in his reference to the challenge of domestic terrorism in Pakistan and in a signed article cautioned his electorate:

“We now stand at a critical crossroad in our history with rampant violence, terror and fissiparous tendencies spreading across Pakistan. While these are certainly the worst of times for this country, decimated as it is by violence, corruption and polarization, it can also be seen as the most opportune of times to move towards a rebirth of Pakistan in the vision of its Quaid.”

A ‘naya Pakistan’  is the slogan of Imran Khan. The power of the ballot over the bullet in realizing this vision will be tested on May 11. And the powerful Pak Army will be watching the outcome from its GHQ in Rawalpindi - to step in - as it has in the past if the 'national interest' as interpreted by the khaki-brigade  is jeopardized.

(C Uday Bhaskar is Distinguished Fellow at the Society for Policy Studies. He can be contacted at cudaybhaskar@spsindia.in)

 

Pakistan was on the edge Friday, a day before it goes to the polls to decide the fate of 23,000 candidates who stayed on despite a volatile run-up that saw at least 100 people being killed in a series of terror attacks and former prime minister Yousuf Raza Gilani's son being abducted.

  Islamabad, May 10 (IANS) Pakistan was on the edge Friday, a day before it goes to the polls to decide the fate of 23,000 candidates who stayed on despite a volatile run-up that saw at least 100 people being killed in a series of terror attacks and former prime minister Yousuf Raza Gilani's son being abducted.   To add to the anxiety levels, star leader and Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaaf chief Imran Khan suffered serious injuries after a fall in an election rally in Lahore Tuesday.   As Pakistanis prepare to vote in a new civilian government - this is the first time ever that an elected government has completed its term - former military strongman Pervez Musharraf found himself under arrest. He had returned from exile in Dubai hoping to be a factor but that was not to be.   Chief Election Commissioner Fakhruddin G. Ebrahim said Friday all arrangements were in place for free, fair and transparent elections.   "The power of vote can change destiny of the nation," he said.   The 20-day election campaign had ended at midnight Thursday with mainstream parties holding big public meetings in the capital Islamabad and the eastern city of Lahore.   Election for 342 seats of the National Assembly and 728 seats in the four provincial assemblies will be held simultaneously. Polling will begin at 8 a.m., and will continue until 5 p.m. without any break.   The Election Commission's data shows that a total of 23,079 candidates are in the fray for the National Assembly and provincial assembly seats. The country of 180 million will 84 million voters, including 36 million women, exercising their franchise.   The election campaign has been marred by a string of attacks by the Pakistani Taliban, whose chief Hakimullah Mehsood has warned of more strikes on election day. Officials estimate that over 100 people have died and many more injured in these terror strikes. At least three candidates were killed in attacks where elections have been postponed.   The main contenders for power in this high stakes battle being watched all over the world are the ruling Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), the Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N), the Muttahida Quami Movement (MQM), the Awami National Party and the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaaf (PTI). There are others too like the Jamaat-e-Islami, Awami Muslim League and the Pakistan Muslim League-Q.   Barely two days before the polls, Gilani's son Ali Haider Gilani was Thursday abducted in Multan town by armed men who attacked a street corner meeting of the PPP. Two people were killed and four injured in the brazen attack that rattled campaigners and voters.   "I urge all of my party supporters to remain peaceful and participate in the vote," Gilani said.   Pakistan's elected government completed its first full five-year term March 17, an unprecedented development in a country that has seen long spells of military rule, with the last of the military dictators being Musharraf who returned to the country March 23 after a self-imposed exile.   Though he was keen to contest the elections, Musharraf's nomination papers were rejected from four constituencies. He was subsequently arrested on graft charges and is under guard at his luxurious country villa just outside Islamabad, which has been declared a sub-jail.   The elections are being held under a caretaker government with Mir Hazar Khan Khoso, a former judge of the country's top court, being made the caretaker prime minister.   Pakistan's parliament, according to the 1973 constitution, is bicameral. It consists of the president and two houses - the National Assembly and the Senate. The National Assembly has 342 seats, including 60 reserved for women and 10 for non-Muslims
 
The reason why the Pakistani state has adopted such a kid-glove approach towards these terrorists was made clear by Maulana Fazlur Rehman at a speech in Dera Ghazi Khan recently when he demanded that no force be used against the TTP. Clearly, he was currying favour with them so he could continue his campaign without having to worry about security.   Irfan Hussain In most countries, if a criminal gang had issued a death threat against high-profile national organisations five months earlier than their killing spree, two things would happen:   Firstly, the state would make a concerted attempt to track down and neutralise the murderers; and secondly, the targets would be provided enhanced security. In Pakistan, neither has happened after the Taliban’s declaration of intent last December. As a result, they are attacking the PPP, the MQM and ANP candidates with bombs and bullets at will.   The reason why the Pakistani state has adopted such a kid-glove approach towards these terrorists was made clear by Maulana Fazlur Rehman at a speech in Dera Ghazi Khan recently when he demanded that no force be used against the TTP. Clearly, he was currying favour with them so he could continue his campaign without having to worry about security.   This theme was echoed by Imran Khan at a rally in D.I. Khan when he waved aside precautions, saying he did not need any security on the stage. Of course, he doesn’t: he did not acquire the nickname Taliban Khan for nothing. By excusing terror attacks on ordinary Pakistanis by saying they are being caused by the US drone campaign, he has sought to legitimise the TTP’s onslaught that has killed tens of thousands.   Nawaz Sharif, too, is reaping the rewards of his studied silence on the issue. His brother, Shahbaz Sharif, the Punjab chief minister for the last five years, has hardly been energetic in pursuing the militants based in southern Punjab. They have used these sanctuaries to attack targets in the other three provinces. And when he appealed to them not to launch attacks in Punjab because his administration was not pursuing them, he was raising the white flag of surrender.   Understandably, the Taliban were emboldened by these clear signals from these right-wing politicians, and have decided to settle scores with the three parties standing in their way. As Ejaz Haider wrote recently in the Express Tribune, the Taliban have a clear strategy for imposing their version of Sharia on Pakistan. While they know they could never hope to come to power through elections, they are using terror to push their agenda.   The reason they are succeeding is that divisions across the political spectrum have prevented decisive action. In order to gain immunity from attacks, politicians like Fazlur Rehman, Nawaz Sharif and Imran Khan have sown enough confusion to cause paralysis among the defence establishment.   The PPP-led coalition that ruled these last five years — hardly the best example of dynamic, clear-headed governance — was powerless in the face of multiple challenges from the military, the judiciary, the media and the opposition. Constantly bleating about the lack of consensus, the government was an impotent witness to an escalating terror campaign.   If Pakistan were under attack from, say, India, there would be an instant consensus on the need to defend ourselves. And yet the threat Pakistan faces from terrorism is just as serious. So why this ambivalence among our politicians and our generals where the TTP is concerned?   Lenin, when advising on how to advance a cause, wrote: “Probe with a bayonet: if you meet steel, stop. If you meet mush, then push.” The Taliban must be delighted at meeting mush most of the time. The only time they met steel was in Swat, but it’s been plain sailing since that setback.   Apart from the tragedy of the lives lost in this bloody run-up to the election, another loss is the truth. Given the brakes that have had to be applied to the campaigns of the PPP, the ANP and the MQM, they will always be able to claim that they received less votes than they would have in normal circumstances. And it is true that many of their voters will be reluctant to risk their lives by queuing at highly vulnerable polling stations.   Thus, we will never really know how the incumbency factor and the perception of poor governance has affected the outcome. Out of the three parties, the MQM is likely to be the least troubled by the terror campaign as its well-oiled machine delivers in each election. Most voters in the areas the party controls have little say in how their ballots are cast.   The other troubling factor is the perception that fortunately, Punjab has been barely hit by the TTP’s terror tactics. The smaller provinces have some justification in blaming Shahbaz Sharif’s policy of appeasement for the bloodbath they are experiencing. This will add to the feeling of disenfranchisement the smaller provinces feel, and fuel anti-Punjab sentiment.   When the Boston Marathon was bombed last month, the FBI assigned 1,000 agents to reconstruct the steps that led to the attack, and to determine whether the two young Chechen brothers were part of a terrorist organisation. This is the kind of meticulous investigation that has warded off other similar attacks.   In Pakistan, apart from routine editorial handwringing, it’s business as usual after a terror attack. Our pathetic security apparatus has no clue about the perpetrators or their whereabouts. In fact, the whole intelligence failure over the last few years has been nothing short of catastrophic.   Considering the billions allocated annually to the ISI, MI and sundry other intelligence organisations, it’s a scandal that they have done so little to counter the Taliban threat. The next government will hopefully stir our spooks into action.   But if — as is widely expected — Nawaz Sharif becomes the next prime minister, why would he want to disturb the arrangement he seems to have reached with the Taliban? Imran Khan, too, wants no military action against these killers.   So it seems the Taliban will continue meeting mush as they push their bayonets deeper into Pakistan.   irfan.husain@gmail.com   The Dawn, 5 May 2013
 

Judging by the number of Western media and analytical queries I have received over the past two weeks, there seems to be a growing interest in Western capitals in the potential implications of the elections on Pakistan's foreign policy orientation. The interest is perhaps triggered by Pakistan's self-acclaimed and much-touted 'strategic shift' that has continued to receive attention in Western capitals (and in New Delhi and Kabul for that matter). At best, the shift is only partially understood and there is no sense of whether it is likely to have any longevity.

Moeed Yusuf Judging by the number of Western media and analytical queries I have received over the past two weeks, there seems to be a growing interest in Western capitals in the potential implications of the elections on Pakistan's foreign policy orientation. The interest is perhaps triggered by Pakistan's self-acclaimed and much-touted 'strategic shift' that has continued to receive attention in Western capitals (and in New Delhi and Kabul for that matter). At best, the shift is only partially understood and there is no sense of whether it is likely to have any longevity. Therefore, the very basic question: what should we (external watchers) expect from the next five years? One can answer this with some confidence since, perhaps driven by Pakistan's acute internal challenges, the establishment and the three major political parties (the PPP, PML-N and PTI) seem to have converged on the key markers — not necessarily in terms of the pace with which things should move but at least on the broad directionality of the key foreign relationships. The continuing civilian-military disconnect on a number of foreign policy questions notwithstanding, the convergence began to emerge during the last PPP government. At its core, it entails a subtle recalibration of the country's regional outlook coupled with a status quo approach on relations with China and the US. The next five years are likely to see a consolidation of this. Conceptually, as far as I can decipher, there are six major pillars of this outlook. First, positive movement with India: The inevitable vocal and perhaps violent challenge from the right-wing notwithstanding, the leaderships of the three major parties seem to be fairly sanguine on the options. We'll have to find the right political jargon and face-savers to pursue this fully but the bottom line is set: the way forward is trade. Jaw-jaw will continue on Kashmir in parallel but it won't hold the rest hostage. The establishment has found this difficult to swallow but it is also aware of the internal compulsions. The pace of movement will remain up for discussion but the directionality will not. Second, hedging on Afghanistan: The Afghan policy can take one of two very different directions depending on what transpires in Kabul post-2014. The current desire is to see Pakistan reduce its reliance on hardcore Islamist Pakhtuns and open up with the northern factions. Behind-the-scenes efforts to reach out to the north have been ongoing for some time. The desire for greater attention to the economic aspects of the relationship is also part of this thinking. Quite to the contrary, a return to civil war in Afghanistan will inevitably trigger the good old proxy game with Pakistan falling on the side of the hardcore elements and the traditional supporters of the northern factions reviving their erstwhile ties. Pakistan will find itself squarely on the wrong side of global opinion if this outcome transpires. Third, rebalancing of the Sunni-Shia divide — read, the Saudi-Iran equation: For years, Pakistan has been firmly in the Saudi camp with all its attendant economic benefits and ideological repercussions. This has begun to undergo some correction for two reasons. First, the ideological repercussions seem to have caught up with us fair and square. Among other fallouts, the 'Arabisation' of the Pakistani religious right's mindset and its ability to intimidate its opponents has quite obviously exacerbated the Sunni-Shia divide in Pakistan. The state, with the history of tilt towards the Sunni crescent, is increasingly finding it hard to pledge neutrality. It is quickly losing control of the situation. Second is energy where the Pakistani decision-making enclave seems to be taking the Iranian option far more seriously than one thought it would given the Western opposition. President Zardari's last visit to Iran had both goals in mind. Admittedly, a PML-N government with its closer links to the Saudi royals may be less sympathetic to this recalibration but again, it could tamper with the pace, not directionality. The latter seems to be coming out of a deeper realisation that the traditional policy has run its course. Fourth, consistency on China: There is zero dissent on this all-weather friendship despite the clear Chinese signalling that it will not get into the business of bailing Pakistan out with free handouts on a regular basis. The attachment to China, however, is almost reflexive. The future policy will continue seeking Chinese investment and increasingly also use Beijing as a buffer against the geo-political squeeze Islamabad feels it is under. The Chinese presence in Gwadar ought to be seen in this light. Fifth, more of the same with the US: For all the seesawing and finger-pointing we have seen from both sides over the years, the bottom line is that neither can afford to alienate the other completely. Pakistan worries Washington and this will not allow it to walk away. Islamabad realises it has been treading on thin ice and cannot afford isolation. There will continue to be a lot of lip service to decreasing dependence on the US (especially from the likes of PTI). It won't happen though — neither the establishment nor the political parties wish to forgo the assistance that flows from Washington. So there will be angst; there will be mudslinging; but the relationship will continue. Sixth, more outreach to the traditionally neglected. Efforts to reach out to Moscow over the past two years are examples of efforts at diversification of foreign policy options. None of these are likely to be consequential in the foreseeable future. Net positive or negative? It depends. The best case implies improved ties with the region without losing out on Western engagement. A more realpolitik analysis on the other hand suggests a major problem: continued outreach to Iran may well be non-negotiable in Riyadh and Washington. How Pakistan manages to deal with this challenge will determine the fate of the reorientation. The Tribune, 30 April 2013

 

As Pakistan prepares for its crucial May 11 general election, the campaign trend, so far, indicates that India-bashing is absent. Even the "K" word (Kashmir) is mute, if not missing. Some of the mainstream political parties have pledged peace with the neighbour in their manifestos. If the Pakistan Peoples' Party that ruled since 2008 takes credit for improving bilateral ties, its principal challenger, the Pakistan Muslim League of former premier Nawaz Sharif, talks of allowing India the "shortest route" to the land-locked Afghanistan and Central Asia, something Delhi has unsuccessfully sought for a long time.

 

By Mahendra Ved  | mahendraved07@gmail.com As Pakistan prepares for its crucial May 11 general election, the campaign trend, so far, indicates that India-bashing is absent. Even the "K" word (Kashmir) is mute, if not missing. Some of the mainstream political parties have pledged peace with the neighbour in their manifestos. If the Pakistan Peoples' Party that ruled since 2008 takes credit for improving bilateral ties, its principal challenger, the Pakistan Muslim League of former premier Nawaz Sharif, talks of allowing India the "shortest route" to the land-locked Afghanistan and Central Asia, something Delhi has unsuccessfully sought for a long time. Imran Khan, who played a lot of cricket on Indian soil before taking to politics with his Pakistan Tehrik-e-Insaf, says that "progressive détente" would benefit both the nations. Even as election promises are not always honoured, they must be welcomed. This unprecedented development is thanks to two contrasting reasons. One emphasises the Pakistanis' devotion to Sufi saint Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti. The other is the realisation, at least among sections of the ruling elite, of the threat they face, not from India, the perennial "No. 1 enemy", but from homegrown militancy. Votes will be cast in Pakistan, but politicians, including candidates, are coming to Ajmer, in India's Rajasthan, home of Chishti's shrine. The time, too, is auspicious: a day after voting will begin the saint's 801st anniversary. It is a great occasion for Muslims across South Asia. Chishti and the Taliban would be poles apart. The Tehrik Taliban Pakistan and other militant groups have been shooting candidates and bombing polls rallies. They have shrewdly divided the political spectrum, targeting liberals and sparing conservatives. The PPP, the Awami National Party of the Pashtuns and the Muttahida Quami Movement of migrants from undivided India are being attacked. Those spared include the parties of Sharif and Imran. Their silence, besides that of the Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam led by Maulana Fazlur Rahman, and other Islamist parties, is meant to buy security for themselves, while the militants target their rivals. A morning newspaper warned: "This policy of appeasement makes them inadvertently complicit in the Taliban's terrorist campaign against particular political parties. But this opportunism may cost them heavily in the future when the militants turn on them too." As it is, the average voter turnout in Pakistan is 45 per cent. Media reports speak of fear among the people thanks to violence that has been on the rise since January. The weekly average of 70 terror attacks has risen this month. Will the Taliban and militants decide on  the outcome of this election?   The election's other big development centres on   former military ruler  Pervez Musharraf. He returned from exile to "save" and "lead" Pakistan, something no general before him has achieved. But he could not have anticipated being disqualified from contesting all   four seats for which he had filed nomination papers.   The Indian-born general (the Indians have mixed feelings about him) is barred from leaving the country. And for the first time in Pakistan, where soldiers are a privileged class, a former army chief and head of   state has been arrested.   Musharraf remains embroiled in court cases on serious charges that include treason, not declaring his assets fully and being a party to the 2007 assassination of Benazir Bhutto.   As retired generals protest his "humiliation", it will certainly be a long haul, in and out of the courts, no matter who wins the election.   The rise and fall of generals in the neighbourhood gets Indians talking proudly about their democracy. Their disdain, however, also betrays a mix of admiration for the man in uniform, but worry at his going "political".   When Ayub Khan took power in Pakistan, Indians were alarmed, wondering if this could happen to them. The political leadership became wary. The civil bureaucracy succeeded in fanning its fears and positioned itself as a bridge between the soldier and the politician. The bureaucrat has gained advantage over the military, to the latter's dismay.   Despite sharing the military past till the 1947 partition, India has mercifully escaped rule by khaki or olive green uniforms. Any talk of a military takeover in India is passé. The farthest an Indian general has gone is to petition the Supreme Court. Gen  V.K. Singh was not punished for this, even after he lost the court battle. He completed his tenure. That is how India's military has evolved within a democratic polity.       When Gen  Ne Win seized power in Burma, now Myanmar, thousands of Indian settlers were displaced. The Nehru government was forced to airlift many families.

 

Relations remained virtually frozen for decades. Dealing with the military junta since the 1990s earned India much criticism. It is satisfying that the officers have since hung their uniforms and taken to democratic ways.   A politicised army remains a factor in India's neighbourhood. However, toppling of civilian governments in Pakistan (generals Yahya Khan, Ziaul Haq and Musharraf) and in Bangladesh (generals Ziaur Rahman and H.M. Ershad), a frequent phenomenon in the last century, seems a matter of the past.   It is gratifying that democracy has worked in Bangladesh in the last two decades. In Pakistan, too, despite frequent crises and differences with the judiciary and the political class, when it was feared that the army might step in, the National Assembly and the state legislatures were able to complete their tenures for the first time.   Will this trend continue after the elections?

The New Strait Times, 27 April 2013

 
Months ago a cheerful report decorated the headlines of Pakistani and international newspapers: the civil government successfully came to an end after serving its full term for the first time, an unprecedented issue in the political history of the country. All previously governments were whether unelected and came to power through military coup or toppled before serving their full terms. The civil government under the premiership of Asif Ali Zadari, the husband of former Prime Minister and hugely popular women, Benazir Bhuto, succeeded to serve its full term.   Masood Karosh   Months ago a cheerful report decorated the headlines of Pakistani and international newspapers: the civil government successfully came to an end after serving its full term for the first time, an unprecedented issue in the political history of the country. All previously governments were whether unelected and came to power through military coup or toppled before serving their full terms. The civil government under the premiership of Asif Ali Zadari, the husband of former Prime Minister and hugely popular women, Benazir Bhuto, succeeded to serve its full term.   Analyses and comments followed the news was giving one impression that with all challenges and problems in the country, such unprecedented event heralded a better prospective for democracy. In other words, Pakistan has moved ahead toward democracy than the years before the commencement of outgoing government.   Now similar optimism flows out of the analysis about arrest of former military chief and President, Mr. Parvez Mushraff, who ended his four years-long self-imposed exile in order to play bigger role in the upcoming parliamentary election.  He ruled the country from 1999 to   2008 after he took power by sacking ex-Prime Minister Mr. Nawaz Sharif who leads his political party Muslim League-Nawaz, the parted branch of Muslim League party that secured the independence of Pakistan after scuffling with Indian Congress Party. Now Mr. Nawaz is again a front runner for the upcoming election and has a grand chance to become the new prime minister.   Mr. Musharraf returned to the country in hope to challenge Nawaz Sharif, Asif Ali Zardari, Emran Khan, sportsman turned politician, and other potential candidates for de-facto supreme political position. But on Saturday, He was held for two weeks until the next hearing in a case related to his 2007 decision to sack and detain several judges. After the judge's order on Saturday, Islamabad's administration declared that Musharraf's lavish country residence could serve as a jail, meaning the ex-president could be held there under house arrest.   He appeared before the anti-terrorism court amid tight security, as hundreds of lawyers opposing him scuffled with security personnel and shouted slogans against the former military ruler. “Go Musharraf Go and whosoever is a friend of Musharraf is a traitor”, shouted countless people out of the court.   Spokesman for Musharraf’s All Pakistan Muslim League party told reporters, “Our lawyers denied the allegation that General Musharraf sacked judges and kept them and their families under house arrest for six months. It is absolutely untrue”. “We had requested the court not to send General Musharraf on judicial remand, so that we can go to higher courts for relief”.   According to the ruling he should have been sent to prison but due to security reason he has been allowed to return to his farmhouse, saving him the hardships of a Pakistani prison where police said he would face security threats.   After his arrest amidst huge concern, similar optimism can be reflected in articles and analysis from the country as occurred after the successful completion of first civil government’s term.   Many call his arrest, which is the first of its kind that military officials be convicted in a court that also in anti-terrorism court, as success for democracy. In other words, the move of judiciary   reflects the power of this pillar of power that can even convict such a powerful individual whose conviction would have been a nightmarish illusion only four years ago.   But is such optimism realistic? I hope it was so as they are depicting in their analyses or fantasizing about it in their sanctum of functional democracy in their country, but I do not.   Whatever happens to Parvez Musharraf whether he gets convicted of serving years behind bars or be released to go back where he came from, either would support democracy and democratic establishment.   If the court ruling happened in a country other than Pakistan, it could be interpreted as move forward but I fear here it would be repulsive. Perhaps, the problem lies with the interpretation of democracy. Democracy is not all about elections and establishment of governments that fail to protect its leaders.   First of all, it should be noticed that the assassination of former Prime Minister, Benazir Bhutto largely helped the Pakistan People’s Party to rise on power as happened with the Rajiv Ghandi in   India. It is not clear what would have happened if Benazir Bhutto was alive? Was the President Musharraf ready to hand power to her or not? Her death gained the PPP huge sympathy and similarly mounted Pressure on government of Musharraf that made him leave the country.   However, the government could serve its full term but largely limped in domestic and political and economic spheres. The cycle of sectarian violence is terribly increasing to alarming level. Minorities are targeted while the government failed to protect them. Just during few months of 2013, more than four hundred Hazaras were killed in Quetta Pakistan while the Pakistani government failed to protect them as citizen of the country.    Responding to a journalist, the then governor of Baluchistan openly said that the only thing he could do for Hazara community was sending trucks of tissue paper to wipe out their tears!   So considering that whether rulers served full term or a strong person appeared in the court or not can be devious. Moreover, President Musharraf should not be considered the same former military general.   He ruled the country and finally exiled which have tremendously weakened his past strong military ties among the military establishment. In addition, presently secular parties are under huge restrictions for election campaign. Pluralism of all kind which is the very principle of democracy is changing to unfamiliar thing or deemed as foreign product. Same is the case with human rights, women rights, right to protection and etc.  If Pakistani rulers want to have a bright future, instead of revenging Parvez Musharraf, serious combat should start against radicalism and extremism which is increasingly showing bolder presence on political stage. The Daily Outlook, 23 April 2013
 

When Shahid Khan started talking, his gunmen clambered onto a school’s rooftop, scanning the surrounding hills with flashlights, anticipating a possible attack. In the past 10 days, militants have carried out five attacks against Mr. Khan's party. Below them, Mr. Khan, a candidate for his region’s provincial assembly, addressed potential voters — poor farmers and village traders, gathered on a cluster of rope beds outside the school, listening raptly to his promises. Then, after wolfing down snacks offered by his hosts, he abruptly left.

By DECLAN WALSH NOWSHERA, Pakistan — When Shahid Khan started talking, his gunmen clambered onto a school’s rooftop, scanning the surrounding hills with flashlights, anticipating a possible attack.

In the past 10 days, militants have carried out five attacks against Mr. Khan's party. Below them, Mr. Khan, a candidate for his region’s provincial assembly, addressed potential voters — poor farmers and village traders, gathered on a cluster of rope beds outside the school, listening raptly to his promises. Then, after wolfing down snacks offered by his hosts, he abruptly left.

“They say it’s not safe around here,” said Mr. Khan, as he leapt into a waiting car, trailed by a bodyguard. “We’d better get going.” Electioneering has taken a dark twist in northwest Pakistan, where a concerted campaign of Taliban attacks against the main secular party is violently reshaping the democratic landscape before parliamentary elections scheduled for May 11. In the past 10 days, militants have carried out four bombings and one grenade attack against Mr. Khan’s Awami National Party, which has governed Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province since 2008, and whose secular ideology is repugnant to the Taliban’s vision of imposing an Islamic caliphate in Pakistan.

In the worst attack, last Tuesday, a suicide bomber killed 19 people and wounded dozens in central Peshawar, narrowly missing the former railways minister, Ghulam Ahmed Bilour.

The Taliban have warned voters to stay away from rallies organized by the three main secular parties — the Awami Party, President Asif Ali Zardari’s Pakistan Peoples Party and the Karachi-based Muttahida Qaumi Movement.

But so far, they have concentrated their fire on the Awami Party, restricting its candidates’ ability to campaign freely, and tilting the field in favor of more conservative parties, analysts say.

“The most effective campaign is being run by the Taliban,” said Asad Munir, a retired army brigadier with the army’s Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence, who comes from the northwest. “They are holding the state of Pakistan hostage, and doing their activities as they want.”

This election was never going to be easy for the Awami Party, which has already attracted sharp criticism for poor governing skills and corruption while in office — deficiencies that analysts, and some party insiders, say will hurt it during the balloting. But now the Taliban seem determined to wipe out the party as a political contender.

In the past five years, militants have killed 700 Awami officials and supporters, including two lawmakers and a senior minister, officials say — more casualties than any other party in Pakistan.

In the southern city of Karachi, where the party enjoys support in ethnic Pashtun neighborhoods, about 40 activists have been killed in the past six months, effectively shutting down the party’s activities there. The Awami Party’s leader, Asfandyar Wali Khan — who himself survived an attack by a suicide bomber in 2009 — is said to be leading the campaign from the safety of the federal capital, Islamabad. For his candidates out in the towns and villages of the northwest, campaigning has become a furtive and fearful affair.

In Nowshera, a small town 25 miles east of Peshawar, Mr. Khan holds small rallies, often at night and with little notice. He quietly sends advance teams of supporters to check out potential sites. And he is always accompanied by a contingent of private guards and regular police officers, all heavily armed. “Every time my team leaves my house, we are not just praying for election success — we are praying for our lives,” he said as he drove down a cobblestone lane that snaked between high-walled houses. Once peaceful, the Nowshera district, which has a substantial military presence, has been increasingly affected by Taliban violence, suffering 26 attacks in 2012 and 5 so far this year, according to the police. Last month, a car bomb explosion at a refugee camp killed 16 people and wounded 31. In February, militants assaulted a police checkpoint, and then threw grenades at a police vehicle on a major highway, killing one officer. In some towns, Taliban fighters have forced shops selling movies to close.

As he bumped through the night, driving between rallies held in courtyards and in small village squares, Mr. Khan pointed to a school that was bombed by the Taliban last year. He helped pay to have it rebuilt. “These days, you never know what can happen,” he said.

Mr. Khan, a burly man with an irreverent sense of humor, did not mention the Taliban in his campaign speeches. The talk was of bread-and-butter issues, not bullets: access to drinking water, electricity and gas. “I don’t want to depress people,” he said, citing increased sales of anti-anxiety medication in local pharmacies.

But such candidates are silent on delicate issues for another reason, too: they fear antagonizing local militants.

Nowshera shares a border with Darra Adam Khel, a tribal district famed for its gunsmiths, where militants have engaged in firefights with the security forces. Just a few miles away lies the infamous Akora Khattack madrasa, where several generations of Taliban leaders have received their education.

The problem is exacerbated by arguments among Pakistan’s politicians about how to handle the Taliban. Mr. Khan’s main rival is a candidate of Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf, the party of Imran Khan, the former cricket star. With his glamorous youth appeal and vocal opposition to American policies, particularly drone strikes, his party is expected to do well in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa.

But critics accuse Mr. Khan of being soft on the Taliban because he advocates talks with the militants, not fighting. In a television interview on April 15, Mr. Khan said that the Taliban were bombing his opponents “because they supported America’s war.”

Similarly, Nawaz Sharif, the opposition leader who is a favorite to become the next prime minister, has also been measured in his criticism of militancy.

“If Imran Khan or Nawaz Sharif think this is only happening to someone else, they are mistaken,” said Mr. Munir, the retired officer, referring to the attacks on secular candidates. “If they do not speak out now, their time will come later.”

The Awami Party leadership has sometimes hurt its own cause. Mr. Bilour, the former minister who survived the bombing last week in Peshawar, ingratiated himself with the Taliban last year by offering a $100,000 bounty to anyone who killed an obscure American filmmaker who had released a film insulting the Prophet Muhammad.

The offer was made one day after a mob protesting the film had stormed through Peshawar, destroying several movie theaters, including one belonging to his family. But while the Taliban embraced Mr. Bilour’s offer, they ultimately offered little protection. In December, the militants killed his brother Bashir Bilour, a politician; after last week’s attack, the militants said they had intended to kill Mr. Bilour’s nephew, who is standing for election in his father’s election district.

After his recent night of campaigning in Nowshera, Mr. Khan, the Awami candidate, reached his home at midnight, finally relaxing over a cigarette and a cup of tea. This election was never going to be easy, he admitted — voters were already skeptical of corruption in politics, and his opponent, a doughty veteran of several elections, would be tough to beat. But since the Taliban entered the fray, his odds had slimmed even further. “I want to make a difference,” he pleaded. “But like this, our hands are tied.”

The New York Times, 22 April 2013

 


< Previous ... 1 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 ... Next > 

(total 384 results)

Review
 
 
 
 
spotlight image Since Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina assumed office again in Bangladesh in 2009, bilateral relations between New Delhi and Dhaka have been on a steady upward trajectory.
 
read-more
Senior representatives from the US, China, Pakistan and Afghanistan met in Muscat, Oman, on Monday to revive stalled peace talks with the Taliban, but the insurgent group failed to participate in the meeting being held after a year.
 
read-more
Ruskin Bond’s first novel ‘Room on the Roof’ describes in vivid detail how life in the hills around Dehradun used to be. Bond, who is based in Landour, Mussoorie, since 1963, captured the imagination of countless readers as he painted a picture of an era gone by.
 
read-more
India’s foreign policy under Prime Minister Narendra Modi has attained a level of maturity which allows it to assert itself in an effective manner. This is aimed at protecting the country’s national interests in a sustained way.
 
read-more
Braid-chopping incidents have added to the already piled up anxieties of Kashmiris. Once again they are out on the streets, to give vent to their anger. A few persons, believed to be braid-choppers were caught hold by irate mobs at various places. They were beaten to pulp.
 
read-more
China has witnessed great historic changes in the past five years from the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC) to the upcoming 19th CPC National Congress.
 
read-more
In a move lauded worldwide, King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud recently issued a royal decree allowing women to obtain driving licences.
 
read-more
Recently, United States President Donald Trump kicked the onus of the US backing out of the Iran nuclear deal to the US Congress. The question is how we interpret this technically, in terms of domestic politics and in terms of geopolitics.
 
read-more
It is a privilege to be invited to this most prestigious of law schools in the country, more so for someone not formally lettered in the discipline of law. I thank the Director and the faculty for this honour.
 
read-more
Column-image

Title: The People Next Door -The Curious History of India-Pakistan Relations; Author: T.C.A. Raghavan; Publisher: HarperCollins ; Pages: 361; Price: Rs 699

 
Column-image

Could the North Korean nuclear issue which is giving the world an anxious time due to presence of hotheads on each side, the invasion of Iraq and its toxic fallout, and above all, the arms race in the teeming but impoverished South Asian subcon...

 
Column-image

Title: A Bonsai Tree; Author: Narendra Luther; Publisher: Niyogi Books; Pages: 227 Many books have been written on India's partition but here is a firsthand account of the horror by a migrant from what is now Pakistan, who ...

 
Column-image

As talk of war and violence -- all that Mahatma Gandhi stood against -- gains prominence across the world, a Gandhian scholar has urged that the teachings of the apostle of non-violence be taken to the classroom.

 
Column-image

Interview with Hudson Institute’s Aparna Pande, whose book From Chanakya to Modi: Evolution of India’s Foreign Policy, was released on June 17.

 
Subscribe to our newsletter
Archive