Climate Change / Sustainable Development

IORA SUMMIT – INDIA’S MARITIME OPPORTUNITY

India for a variety of historical reasons has not been as deeply aware of its maritime potential as it ought to have been writes C Uday Bhaskar

Mar 16, 2017
By C Uday Bhaskar
 
The first summit meeting of the 21-member Indian Ocean  Rim Association (IORA)  concluded on March 7  with the assembled leaders issuing an inspirational vision document entitled the Jakarta Concord.  
 
Prime Minister Narendra Modi was not among the  leaders who were in Jakarta though India was represented by the Vice President Hamid Ansari, a former career diplomat. The domestic political compulsion related to the five assembly elections that included  India’s largest state Uttar Pradesh  was evidently  the higher priority and  the results declared on March 11 have consolidated Modi’s  political  stature in an emphatic manner.
 
The Modi-led NDA II government will soon complete three years in office and over the next  two years the  Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) will consolidate its position as India’s  most credible political party.  With the kind of numbers that the ‘lotus’ (BJP's political symbol) has won in Uttar Pradesh, both houses of parliament will have a decisive BJP majority  and this kind of parliamentary strength  and political capital is unprecedented in India’s recent history.
 
On the foreign policy and security front  there are many issues that merit Modi's  attention in the last two years of his tenure.  And the IORA Summit that  Modi was unable to attend  draws attention to the maritime window of opportunity that must be prioritized  by India. The maritime domain has a distinctive relevance in the calculus of a nation’s comprehensive national power. Spanning the trade and economic bandwidth,   a country’s maritime  affinity and competence extends to the military and strategic areas  of relevance.
 
Major power  status is an amalgam of many strands of national  capability and it  has been empirically established that  over the last 500 years, every such claimant   has maximized its maritime potential  in a determined manner. Thus  it  is no coincidence that  China has identified and invested in this sector over the last 40 years.
 
 President Xi Jinping  has unveiled an ambitious connectivity project also called the OBOR (one belt-one road)  which has a substantive maritime connectivity component.   As of  now  India is not part of this   grand plan though many of India’s maritime neighbours are active participants.
 
It is instructive to note that Indonesian President , Joko “Jokowi” Widodo  exhorted his people to turn the archipelagic country into a “maritime nation” on the day  he assumed office – October 20, 2014.  Soon after this in November  2014 at the East Asian Summit , Jokowi unveiled his grand  “Poros Maritime Dunia” (Global Maritime Axis)  doctrine.
 
India for a variety of historical reasons has not been as deeply aware of its maritime potential as it ought to have been.  And  even if a small group of professionals were  cognizant of the maritime domain  in an episodic manner – this sector rarely received the kind of sustained high-level political attention that it deserves.
 
Modi signalled a rare departure fairly early  in his tenure and in March 2015 embarked on a three island-nation trip  to Seychelles, Mauritius and Sri Lanka.  In Mauritius he outlined a  shared maritime vision for the Indian Ocean region and declared :  “We seek a future for the Indian Ocean that lives up to the name of SAGAR – Security and Growth for All in the Region.”   Sagar is also the Sanskrit word for the ocean and this multi-lingual trapeze is vintage Modi rhetoric .
 
A review of the Modi  vision outlined in Mauritius  in 2015 and the five elements that were identified for collective effort  are also reflected in the Jakarta Concord.  But the reality is that, despite the persuasive rhetoric of  March 2015, India has not been able to  enhance its comprehensive maritime capability in an appropriate manner.
 
Modi’s absence at Jakarta was noticeable  and the sense was that India is  not yet ready to walk the rich maritime talk.   Bangladesh and Sri Lanka were represented at the summit by Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina and President Maithripala Sirisena respectively. Other leaders included  Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull, South African President  Jacob Zuma  and Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak.
 
Domestic politics may have prevented Modi from attending a major regional maritime summit, a grouping that was conceived by India in 1997. Regional maritime connectivity  and nurturing the Blue Revolution have immense potential that is largely untapped. But if  the ‘Sagar’  vision can be re-infused with the political commitment it warrants, Modi may still be able to orient India towards its inherent maritime destiny before he prepares for the 2019  general election.

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