Aarakshan controversy: Symbol of India's distortion of "Freedom"

There are many areas of inadequacy that must cause  deep concern (corruption) and  in some areas – abiding shame as for instance in female foeticide and honor killing. By C Uday Bhaskar

Aug 18, 2011



By  C Uday  Bhaskar


On  Monday (August 15), the Prime Minister  Dr Manmohan Singh will unfurl the national flag  to celebrate  India’s 65th  Independence  Day and  the attainment of ‘freedom’  from oppressive colonial rule.  In comparison to many of  its  peers who were similarly liberated from the colonial yoke, India has much to be satisfied about after 64 years and the comparison with Pakistan is perhaps the most  favorable and less so with China.

 But there are many areas of inadequacy that must cause  deep concern (corruption) and  in some areas – abiding   shame  as for instance in female feticide and honor killing. The freedom  and equality that was envisioned in August 1947  and  formalized in January 1950  through the Constitution remains elusive for millions of Indians – and where it is ostensibly provided – it is  very distorted. And in may ways, the controversy over the film ‘Aarakshan’  epitomizes these distortions and contradictions.

 This comment is not a review of the film  which is being perceived as anti-Dalit but draws attention to the nature of the controversy generated by  different constituencies that has resulted in the banning of the film in two states – Uttar Pradesh and Punjab; while Andhra Pradesh has suspended the film.

 The film which was duly cleared by the Film Certification Board (the old nomenclature Censor Board  has been thoughtfully changed to Certification by Leela Samson) was yet to be released – but the promotional  dialogues and clips shown on TV were deemed to be offensive to Dalit sensibilities and  the controversy grew by the day.  The freedom of  speech and expression guaranteed  in the Constitution was  distorted  in an opportunistic manner and a  paradoxical sequence of events followed.

 The film which was not seen by the principal protesters  was considered to be against the lower caste cross-section and cynical political opportunism introduced. The debates that raged became shrill and angry and  caste-bank politics was at play. The director, Prakash Jha has moved the Supreme Court  to challenge the ban imposed by some states and this case will come up on Tuesday (Aug 16) for consideration.

 More than the legal precedent endorsing Article 19 (1)(a)  of the Constitution,  that was already established in 1989 in the case of the Tamil film “Ore Oru Gramathille”, the Aarakshan controversy is illustrative of two serious malignancies in the Indian body-politic, which if ignored will have very adverse national security consequences. While the founding fathers of August 1947 and those like Dr Ambedkar who drafted the Constitution  had hoped to make social equality (and religious neutrality )  a reality progressively,  in a feudal caste-riven society,  by introducing the concept of  equitable reservation in education and employment opportunities  for the traditionally oppressed sections of Indian society – the reality after seven decades is ugly and dangerous.

 Caste and religion have become the major drivers of Indian politics and many states in India  have strong and assertive regional parties that are predicated on caste. Tamil Nadu, UP and Bihar are case in point while Punjab has spawned a  sectarian religion derived identity. Debate on these issues has become polarized and the backlash of the Mandal commission is still to be fully internalized.

 Intolerance was at play in the controversy over the release of Aarakshan  and the TV debates saw  little of the objective, constructive,  persuasive debate that is the bedrock of democracy.  Freedom as envisioned in 1947 was about the right to have and be allowed to voice dissenting views  - but the mood in the country today,  whether reflected in Parliament in Delhi or  legislatures in state capitals is partisan, juvenile and often abusive in form and content. When was the last time that the Indian citizen was privy to a reasoned and  constructive debate in the legislature on a matter of national import ?

 While caste has become the lightning rod about Aarakshan it is misleading. The film dwells more on the crass commercialization of education in India today  and here  is another grave trampling of the cherished objective of equality.  As a security analyst, I have no hesitation is asserting that  the most serious omission of the Indian state from Pandit Nehru  onwards is the lip-service paid to education  and the freedom denied to millions of Indians.  The state and its elected representatives are culpable.

 By treating education not as a  fundamental right of the citizen – but a  lucrative commercial enterprise – the Indian state has denied  the most valuable freedom – that from ignorance and illiteracy. Aarakshan dwells on this issue,  but strangely this has not attracted the kind of attention it deserves but has been distorted,  lest the angry Indian parent ask inconvenient questions from the politician and bureaucrat.

 It is often said that the politicization of crime and the criminalization of politics in India has reached its nadir and whether the 3 G scam, land mafias  or the current pattern in Uttar Pradesh where history sheeters are being politically rehabilitated – the mood in the country is grim and freedom for the citizen is sullied.  But to my mind the greatest crime being perpetuated by the Indian state is the denial of equitable, affordable high quality education to the Indian child  that is relevant to the 21st century. The alternative predatory education system is the proliferation of private colleges and educational institutions run by the local political-bureaucrat nexus. 

 Aarakshan exposes the venality and corruption that is rampant in education today and if this is not addressed in its most holistic manner, then the millions of  young Indians who will be uneducated and hence unemployable  over th next 15 years will become an internal security threat. The recent London riots and looting will be a picnic in comparison.

 But regrettably instead of focusing on these more serious issues, our legislators and the vested interests who manipulate  India have other priorities. For instance seeking to change the law to allow red beacons – or  the coveted ‘lal batti’ to be fitted on their cars.  Some Indians are clearly more ‘equal’ than their fellow citizens and  hence determined to protect their ‘freedom’ while denying it to others. 

Jai Hind.

(This comment first appeared in Hindi in the Dainik Jagran on Sunday, August 14, 2011.)

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